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China is the great country of ancient culture and rich history. Emperors, pagodas, dragons, characters - for many of us from these images form a representation of China. What is it really? How live Celestial Empire?

China is booming. The man, who was in Beijing for ten or fifteen years ago, today, would not recognize it. Shanghai with its skyscrapers long resembles the modern Western city. However, in modern China, most people remember and honor the ancient traditions, observe rituals, celebrate traditional holidays.

Many Chinese festivals have a long history. Although for a long time the Chinese were very hard-working people and worked from dawn to dusk every day, but the holidays in the calendar still existed.

The Chinese calendar system was made up in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC Calendar in China has always served the economic needs of the farmer. For the basic unit of measurement of time is taken the natural alternation of phases of the moon, that is, beginning of the month necessarily coincide with the new moon, and the middle - the full moon. Equal attention is paid to the solar year. The Chinese have long distinguished the 12 zodiacal constellations, the zodiac signs are named after animals: mouse, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster, dog, pig.

Calendar in ancient China has always been shrouded holiness. Each dynasty established a chronology of their own in the case of the adoption of this chronology neighboring countries considered it recognition of their dependence on the Chinese court.

After the fall of the monarchy in 1911, China entered the European calendar, but to this day lunar calendar continues to play an important role in Chinese.

Festivals in China Monthly:

In January

1. NewYear ?? [yu?n d?n] (January 1). It is borrowed holiday. In China it passes unnoticed, as New Year accepted to celebrate by the lunar calendar. Many Chinese companies spend Christmas corporate parties.

2. Chinese New Year or Spring Festival ?? [ch?n ji?] (the first day of the year according to the lunar calendar, falls on a day in the interval January 21 - February 21 in the Gregorian calendar in 2012, falls on January 23). Traditional holiday. Week holidays. For the Chinese, it is the first day of spring, the awakening of nature. Accepted fireworks and firecrackers explode. On New Year's table must be Jiaozuo ?? (dumplings), they is believed that it’s like gold or silver bullion, so bring wealth. On the second day of the New Year they eat noodles. Since the noodles long and smooth, it is believed that life will be the same length, and a year will be smooth as well. For the New Year, Chinese people are buying new clothes and dress it after midnight. Chinese New Year is accepted to celebrate with family.

In February

3. Lantern Festival ??? [yu?n xi?o ji?] (the 15th day of the 1st lunar month of the Gregorian calendar - February-early March, 2012 falls on February 6). Traditional holiday. Is the end of the Chinese New Year. People hang lanterns on the streets, in parks held cultural events (dance, vocal performances, etc.). On this day, eat cake Yuan Xiao ?? [yu?n xi?o] of rice flour with a sweet filling.

In March

4. When the dragon raises its head ? ?? [l?ng t?i t?u] (2nd day of the 2nd lunar month, beginning of March in the Gregorian calendar). Traditional holiday. According to legend, the dragon helped the villagers and sent them a welcome rain, but the dragon was punished for it and imprisoned under a mountain. Once a year, the dragon wakes up and raises his head to look at the world. In honor of the Chinese people not cut from the Chinese new year up until this day, it is believed that it will attract good luck for the whole year. On the day of this feast in a large influx of hairdressing, queues lining up in the morning.

5. International Women's Day ?? ??? [gu? j? f? n? ji?] (March 8). Shorter working hours. In China, as elsewhere in the world, in this day men give gifts to the fair sex.

6. Tree Planting Day (March 12). Not a day off. In 1981, China adopted a resolution that ordered every citizen of China from 11 to 60 years to land a year is not less than 3 trees. Even though it’s not running in full, but was actively supported by the majority of Chinese citizens.

In April

7. April Fools' Day (April Fools) ??? [y?r?nji?]. April 1. Borrowed. In China, it is celebrated, as elsewhere, making fun of each other.

8. Day of remembrance of the dead ??? [q?ng m?ng ji?] (the 104th day after the winter solstice, on April 4-5.) Traditional holiday. Day off. Also called Holiday of pure light or Day of spirits. On this day people visit the graves of their ancestors, to lay flowers and paper money in honor of the memory of the dead. Also in this day to go out of the city into the countryside.

In May

9. Labor Day ??? [l?o d?ng ji?] (May 1). It’s day off. It goes various sports and recreational activities in parks and squares. Also in this day awards the honored workers.

10. Youth Day ??? [q?ng ni?n ji?] (May 4). Have shorter working hours.

11.  Mother's Day ?? ? [m?q?n ji?] or ?? ? [m?ma ji?]. Borrowed holiday, it became the first in Greece to celebrate. Celebrated every year on the second Sunday of May. In 2012, falls on May 13. Decided to give their mothers gifts, flowers, cards.

In June

12. Universal Children's Day ??? [?r t?ng ji?] (June 1). For children are organized various events (concerts, free admission to the movie).

13. Father's Day ?? ? [f?q?n ji?]. The third Sunday in June. In 2012, falls on June 17. Borrowed holiday. Accepted to give presents their fathers.

14. Dragon Boat holiday ??? [du?n w? ji?] (5th day of the fifth lunar month, in June, according to the Gregorian calendar in 2012. Falls on 23 June). Traditional holiday. Day off. According to legend, Qu Yuan, who served as minister in the court of the kingdom of Chu, was against the hegemony of the Qin. By this he caused indignation minister, who had a great influence on the ruler and was expelled from the city. When the capital of Chu was still occupied by Qin, poet, learning about it, committed suicide by throwing himself into the river 5th day of the 5th lunar month. His body was long sought by boat, but without success. One night, it was the spirit of Qu Yuan, and said that his body was taken away and the dragon in the river to throw rice, wrapped in a silk pouch triangular to scare off the dragon. Since that day in China organizes river race dragon boat and eat ?? [z?ng zi] glutinous rice wrapped in travnikovs sheet.

In July

15. Foundation Day CCP (Chinese Communist Party) ??? ?? ??? [g?ng ch?n d?ng ch?ng l? j? ni?n r?] (July 1). The party was founded in 1921, came to power after a civil war in China.

In August

16. Birthday PLA (People's Liberation Army) ??? [ji?n j?n ji?] (August 1). Output for all military personnel. PLA was established on August 1 1927goda. A variety of events for the military.

17. Day of love ?? ? [q? x? ji?] (7th day of the 7th lunar month, the beginning - the end of August, 2012 - 23 August). Traditional holiday. There is a story about the love of a shepherd and goddess. They were separated, but the only day in the year they were allowed to meet. On this day lovers exchange gifts.

In September

18. Mid-Autumn Festival ??? [zh?ng qi? ji?] (the 15th day of the 8th lunar month, the beginning of the end of September, according to the Gregorian calendar in 2012 - 30 September). Traditional holiday. Day off. It is also called the Moon Festival or the evening admiring the full moon. On this day there is a tradition to eat Yue Bin ?? [yu? bing] «Moon cake" with a sweet filling.

In October

19. Day of the PRC ??? [gu? q?ng ji?] (October 1 in the Gregorian calendar). One of the most important holidays in China. Weekend 3 days.

20. Holiday two nines ??? [sh?ng y?ng ji?] (9th day of the 9th lunar month, the beginning - the end of October. In 2012. Falls on October 23). Traditional holiday.

In November

21. Bachelor's Day ??? [gu?ng g?n ji?]. Modern Chinese holiday. November 11 is celebrated by all those who are not married. China also is the day of the small (1 January) and the average bachelor (11 January and 1 November). Date selected by the fact that they are contiguous units, which are associated with other singles. This holiday was spread in student circles in China, and then the whole society. Now bachelor's Day holiday is quite fashionable, especially among young people. At this festival has taken firewood in the form of strips ?? [y?u ti?o], going to clubs and bars. There are interesting traditions associated with this holiday, for example, publish howling exactly 11 hours 11 minutes 11 of 11 months. In recent years, this day has become popular in China to appoint blind dates. Relation to the holiday differently: some notes in the hope it put an end to his bachelor life, and someone just glad that independent and alone.

In December

22. Day of winter solstice ?? ? [d?ng zh? ji?] (22-23 December). Traditional holiday. On this day, the sun is farthest from the Earth. From that day, nights become shorter and the days are longer. It is believed that from this day awakens the power of nature. On this holidays accepted to visit each other's homes and prepare festive meals.

23. Christmas ??? [sh?ngd?n ji?] (December 25). Borrowed holiday.

Public holidays in China according to the decision of the State Council in 2012:

1.   New Year 1 to January 3, for 3 days. December 31 (Saturday) time;

2.   Chinese New Year from 22 to 28 January, 7 days. January 29 (Sunday) - time;

3.   Day of remembrance of the dead from April 2 to 4, 3 days. March 31 (Saturday) and April 1 (Sunday) - working days;

4.   Labor Day from April 29 to May 1, three days. April 28 (Saturday) - time;

5.   Dragon Boat holiday from 22 to 24 June, three days;

6.   Mid-Autumn Festival and the day of the PRC from September 30 to October 7, 8 days. September 29 (Saturday) - time.