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Types of ships

Types of vessel for the carriage cargoes by sea transport


Container ships (container vessels) are designed for the transportation of goods packed into a standard ISO container. The length of a container ship ranges from 80 to 400 m, capacity - 8 - 20 thousand tones, capacity - 250 - 18 thousand containers. Such vessels can be automated so that the crew can be only 10-14 people. Cargo hold container ships equipped with vertical guides that facilitate the loading of shipping containers (containers are placed on each other) and are to shift with the rolling of the ship. After loading the containers in the holds, loaded them onto the deck, where they are attached with special devices: rods, chains, turnbuckles. Cargo handling are ten times faster than the general-purpose dry cargo vessels, as in the holds of cargo in standard shipping containers loaded and not piece goods - different size and tonnage. Offloading of such a vessel is using the port lifting equipment - frame cranes lifting capacity up to 25 tons. Kind of container vessels is lighter carrier - ships to transport floating barges. These barges carrying capacity 370-2000 tons lighter carrier is discharged from the water, and then is towed to the required berth. Lighters are used in places where the big ships do not go for any reason.

Dry cargo vessels

General dry cargo ships are the most common type and are designed to deliver general cargo, as well as oversized and large. They are equipped with cranes and with arrows for loading and unloading. Goods may be packed in different ways - in boxes, in bales, in barrels, etc. Dry cargo vessels (cargo ships) have two decks and bulk cargo holds, which occupies the main part of the case. For loading equipment used cranes of up to 200 tons. As a rule, modern ships of this type have one refrigerated cargo hold for transporting goods to a certain temperature.

RORO or  ro-ro (from - Roll-on/roll-off; trailer boat)

RORO or  ro-ro (from - Roll-on/roll-off; trailer boat) type of freight transport vessels, with the possibility of horizontal loading equipment on a wheelbase through a swing aft - trucks, cars, rail cars etc. Equipment is loading on a ship out of stopping directly or through terminal tractors carrying capacity up to 30 tons. Load capacity of such vessels - 1 - 10 000 tons. The main advantage of RoRo is fast loading / unloading. RoRo corps is loading rolling machinery and deck used for transportation 20 - and 40 - foot containers. RoRo is an inherently ferry only freight.

The ferry

There are passenger sea ferries, road-rail, rail, car-passenger, which link inland road highway. They are designed to carry railway wagons road trains and passengers. Their capacity ranges from 300 to 60,000 tons. Check for equipment used on the ferry stern and bow ramps and side cargo doors. The ferry can have multiple decks, vehicles moving through them with lifts or ramps. Ferries have passenger facilities, bars, restaurants, entertainment centers for passengers. On average, a car-passenger ferry can carry 150-200 cars and 900-1000 passengers, and the train ferry - up to 50 rail wagons. To unload the cars from the ferry uses system a through-check-in and check-out wheeled vehicles through different gates.

Marine Reefer vessels  

Marine Reefer vessels used to transport products (vegetables, meat, fruit). Their capacity reaches 8 to 12 thousand tons. Cargo holds of ships equipped with refrigerators and have good thermal insulation. Depending on the client's requirements in the holds can maintain a temperature of 6 ° C to -20. Some marine Reefer vessels have very powerful refrigeration systems, are able not only to maintain the required temperature, but also provide rapid freezing of goods (industrial- transport marine Reefer vessels). Some ships are designed to carry fruits and vegetables have increased ventilation of cargo holds.


Bulker - a type of vessel for transportation of bulk cargoes without its packaging, used to transport coal, building materials, grain, sand, gravel, ore. Bulkers are single-deck vessels differ from other large capacity (about 150,000 tones) and a low rate of speed. Bilges bulk carriers have sloping walls (lower and upper) for independent allocation of bulk cargoes. Most of these ships have no loader, so to load them uses the help of port handling equipment. Some bulk carriers equipped with conveyor belts, which are unloaded from the cargo hold of the so-called self-unloading vessels.

Cargo tank

The tanker is the most common type of cargo ships used to transport oil and other liquid cargo. Tanker, is one-deck vessel, its capacity is up to 400 thousand tons. The upper deck of the ship is equipped with a set of pipes through which the loading and unloading of cargo. Load section of such vessels is divided by transverse and longitudinal bulkheads in the cargo tanks (compartments) that are filled with liquid cargo. The tanker has a pump room, which control the unloading of liquid cargo. These ships are equipped with a double bottom and double sides - to prevent ingress of goods into the environment. Some ships of this type can simultaneously carry up to 5 types of liquid cargo. Tanker unloading occurs near jutted piers from which go pipelines to shore.

Gas carriers

Gas tankers carry different gases (propane, methane, ammonia), which are transported in liquefied form. Marine gas carriers have removable tanks cylindrical, rectangular, spherical shape. For example, gas for delivery to the methane, which is transported at temperatures down to -160 ° C, has a rectangular tank. Marine gas carriers equipped with pumps, piping, and compressors - for unloading.

Marine animal transport

A special type of cargo vessels are marine animal transports. These ships can carry one flight of 16,000 head of cattle. They have about nine decks for cattle. Delivery cattle to the vessel are occurs with animal transport trucks, or trains. Marine vessels for the transportation of livestock equipped with powerful ventilation system, consisting of a few dozen fans. Pet food is a special storage area, which consists of the bunkers. Function is to deliver bunkers feed on the deck of the ship. Each feed hopper is fed to the set of pipelines that carry its "consumer." In the case of loss of cattle it throws for oard - where the carcass will become prey for marine fish predators.

Timber-hauling vessel

Timber trucks - used for shipping timber (logs) and sawn timber, as a rule - a single deck. Marine timber reinforced by ice underpinnings that allow entering at ports of the Polar Basin.